Paul Dukas (1865-1935) wrote his 'Villanelle' as a demanding exam piece for the horn class of the Paris Conservatoire in 1906. The title, referencing a cheerful traditional vocal genre that originated in 16th century Italy, already shows that it is by no means a dry etude. Alongside the technical challenges (stopped notes, fast scales, playing without valves using natural horn techniques), the piece is successful because of its refreshing melodies, for which reason 'Villanelle' is still one of the most popular performance pieces for the horn. Dukas composed this piece originally for horn and piano but it is later orchestrated by several others. Dutch arranger Erik Somers transcribed the 'Villanelle' for Horn with accompaniment of a Symphonic Wind Orchestra.